Contributions

This Con­tri­bu­tion exam­ines whether a bar can dis­crim­i­nate on the basis of gen­der in its bar­tender hir­ing prac­tices. Matthew Peter­son (’21) argues that Title VII’s bona fide occu­pa­tion­al qual­i­fi­ca­tion (“BFOQ”) excep­tion should not shield bars from gen­der dis­crim­i­na­tion lia­bil­i­ty. The text and pur­pose of Title VII com­mand a nar­row inter­pre­ta­tion of the BFOQ excep­tion, and a bar cater­ing to pref­er­ences for female bar­tenders is pre­cise­ly the type of unde­sir­able hir­ing prac­tice that Title VII seeks to pro­hib­it. The “essence” of a bar is mak­ing and dis­trib­ut­ing drinks, and the com­ple­tion of these tasks does not depend upon the gen­der of a bar­tender. Courts should not per­mit bars to jus­ti­fy such dis­crim­i­na­tion with claims of sup­port­ing “authen­tic enter­tain­ment.” Unlike an actor or dancer, whose core job func­tion is per­for­mance, a bartender’s pri­ma­ry respon­si­bil­i­ty is pro­vid­ing service.

Contributions

Do state laws that pro­hib­it employ­ers from dis­crim­i­nat­ing against employ­ees on the basis of med­ical mar­i­jua­na card­hold­er sta­tus effec­tive­ly pro­tect card­hold­er employ­ees? In this Con­tri­bu­tion, Tian Lei (’21) argues that when courts rec­og­nize and legit­imize employ­ers’ inter­est in main­tain­ing drug-free work-place poli­cies, card­hold­er employ­ees become espe­cial­ly vul­ner­a­ble to adverse employ­ment action. This Con­tri­bu­tion estab­lish­es that drug-free work­place poli­cies often leave card­hold­er employ­ees with a choice between their health and their job and that the scope and legit­i­ma­cy of such poli­cies must be inter­ro­gat­ed if the law is to pro­tect med­ical mar­i­jua­na card­hold­ers from employ­ment discrimination. 

Contributions

Can a term in a col­lec­tive bar­gain­ing agree­ment dis­place state law under any cir­cum­stance? How should a court bal­ance the need for con­sis­tent, nation­wide labor stan­dards with con­sti­tu­tion­al con­cerns for pre­serv­ing States’ police pow­ers? In this Con­tri­bu­tion, Micaela Heery (’19) offers an ana­lyt­i­cal frame­work for resolv­ing these pre­emp­tion issues under the Labor Man­age­ment Rela­tions Act. This Con­tri­bu­tion argues that the right legal analy­sis must con­sid­er both whether a claim aris­es inde­pen­dent­ly of the col­lec­tive bar­gain­ing agree­ment and whether pre­emp­tion would be appro­pri­ate giv­en Con­gress’ pow­er over inter­state com­merce and notions of state sovereignty.